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Free postage Opens image gallery Image not available Photos not available for this variation. Add to basket -. Watch this item Watching Watch list is full. Like New : A book that has been read, but looks new. This chord II can also be understood as an incomplete neighbor-note embellishment the bass note F of the root of the dominant G. However, Example 3. The Ursatz is a common denominator, representing voice-leading patterns found in a wide range of music.
In the process of relating a given 1 passage to the structures proposed by Schenker, we discover what is distinctive 2 about a particular piece of music. Schenkerian analysis is comparative, offering 3 analytical insights that depend on parallels drawn across the tonal repertoire. Re-imagining music in these terms opens a fresh 9 perspective on both the large-scale shape of tonal works and also their intricate details.
As shown in Example 3. In a full- length example from a real piece of music, each of these simple elaborations could themselves be subject to further expansions, stretching the Ursatz out across a whole piece. These diatonic 8 structures all ultimately represent contrapuntal realizations of the tonic chords 9 shown at the end of each descent, filling out the space between the notes from the tonic with passing notes. The X marked in the bass parts between 1 the initial I and the final V indicate that this is where one would expect 2 harmonic elaborations. If one were not looking for a descent in this passage, it would be logical although not necessarily particularly musical to consider m.
There are definite advantages to the analysis shown in Example 3. Larger-scale structures 63 The main prolongations of the Ursatz 2 The rest of this chapter outlines some of the most common prolongations 3 of these basic Ursatz structures, along with some brief examples. Longer 4 examples are explored in later chapters, while the practical questions of how 5 to approach background analysis are tackled in Chapter 4. Schenker calls 6 the elaborations of the Ursatz outlined below the first-level middleground 7 i.
The skip from E to C, for example, is understood as an 7 unfolding down into an inner voice and is perhaps the simplest way in 8 which a note of the Urlinie can be prolonged. The unfolding is of a two- 9 note chord that is folded back up in the second part of the example. As in the foreground, 4 there are two alternative notations: diagonal beams and stems or simply 5 diagonal lines, if no elaborations of the unfolding are shown. Schenkerian theory identifies two particularly common ways in 3 4 5 Example 3.
Both of these first-level middleground elaborations create an overall arch-like shape by ascending to the Kopfton either by step or by leap. The underlying pattern is of a series of reaching- over gestures marked by flagged stems in Example 3. The basic harmonic support for the initial ascent is I—V—I, but this is embellished by means of a neighbor note to V at the beginning of m. The initial arpeggiation in Example 3.
Notice how the bass line switches from providing harmonic support to the right hand neighbor notes in m. From the perspective of the Ursatz, it takes Example 3. The 6 structural high point of the passage is therefore nearly at the end of the 7 passage in m. As discussed above, linear progressions represent a motion 2 between two voices, so the initial descending fifth progression in Example 3 3.
Even without the Ursatz, it is clear that these gestures 7 occur after the music has already come to some sort of close. XVI: 14, Presto 4 5 6 7 8 Example 3. Although this might be common enough on the surface of the music see reaching over on p. Schenker calls the second progression in Example 3.
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In a shorter piece, the upper neighbor might generate only a fleeting elaboration of IV, but in a longer work this type of elaboration might give rise to a substantial passage of music. Schenker represents this type of elaboration with a different notation, however, because it plays such a crucial role in the structure of tonal music. In a shorter work this may involve merely arrival on a half cadence, but in a more substantial piece it will probably involve a modulation to or in Schenkerian terms a tonicization of the dominant.
At the deep level of immediate prolongations of the Urlinie, Schenker 3 attempts to avoid the possibility of structural ambiguity. The half cadence at 8 9 Example 3. This shows in miniature the close relationship between Ursatz elaborations and form: the idea of two closely related halves of a phrase with different degrees of tonal closure is clearly reflected in the representation of the structure in Example 3. The end of m. The rising third 4 progression of the initial ascent up to the first quarter of m. Harmonic units that move from I—V are marked with a special type 7 of slur that curls up and over the V, as seen at the end of the third measure.
SchenkerGUIDE: A Brief Handbook and Website for Schenkerian Analysis
The piece in 7 question is the Chopin mazurka from which we saw an extract in Example 8 3. In between the two repeats of the 3 A section is a much shorter B section, which again is quite repetitive. The 4 main phrase of the B section, which elaborates a descending third progression 5 over a tonic pedal, is shown in Example 3.
Apart from the various 6 accented dissonances and chromatic embellishments, the main complication 7 is that the first note of the third progression the G appears in a lower 8 octave than the remaining two notes; shifts of register of this sort are discussed 9 below. In this regard, the main feature to notice is that while the first 3 A section is shown simply as a single descending fifth progression, when 4 this section is repeated at the end of the mazurka the same progression is 5 notated as an Urlinie descent.
The B section of this ternary form is shown 2 to be a decoration of this structure rather than something separate inserted 3 in between two repetitions of the A section.